Signs, 47.1 (2021): TBD Far-right groups have retrofitted old Fascist tropes for new times.
Design Issues, 37.3 (2021): TBD The Fascist edition of American Monopoly reconfigured Atlantic City’s free-wheeling capitalism to align with the protectionist economy of interwar Milan.
Modern Italy, Fall 2021. In Fascist Italy, everyone was thinking about East African coffee but almost no one is drinking it.
Fascism militarized both people and land, and mobilized food to connect the two.
gender/sexuality/Italy. 7 (2021).

Pranks and practical jokes were popular: a common favorite involved donning underwear as a hat and parading about the dormitory.
Journal of Modern European History. (2020): 1-22

If East African markets were the theater of empire, then technology was its orchestra.
Journal of Modern Italian Studies. 25.2 (2020): 118-148.

The power of architectural history is that it demonstrates how physical structures support mental constructions.
Annali d’Italianistica, special edition “Speaking Truth to Power from Medieval to Modern Italy.” Eds. Jo Ann Cavallo and Carlo Lottieri. 34 (2016): 371-398.

Sting transformed into song.
Critical Inquiry. 41 (2015): 655-674.  

Motifs of surveillance fuse the textile factory and the nursery.

Articles under review

Under Review

Food companies also used colonial imagery to advertise the most emblematically Italian of foods, like pasta.
Under Review

Children do not always play with their toys in the way that adults predict.
Under Review

In the realm of imperial play, girls were – sadly – expected to be just as violent as boys.

Book Chapters

Forthcoming with The City and Civilization: Representations of Urban Spaces in Italian Culture.  Eds. Andrea Scapolo and Angela Porcarelli.  Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, TBD.

Fascist summer camps promised to improve Italian children’s health through visibly tidy mass playtime.
Forthcoming with Are You Game?  A Cultural History of Board Games.  Ed. Medina Lasansky and Chad Randl.  New York: Routledge, TBD.  

Conquest games rewarded the fastest movement through Abyssinia.
In Food and Material Culture: Proceedings of the 2013 Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery. London: Prospect Books, 2013: 11-19.  

What can a tea set tell us about economic policy?
Forthcoming with The Routledge Companion to Sexuality and Colonialism.  Eds. Chelsea Schields and Dagmar Herzog.  New York: Routedge, January 2021: TBD.

The Fascist regime objected to interracial wetnursing as the moral foe of breastfeeding
In Representing Italy through Food.  Eds. Peter Naccarato, Ken Albala, and Zachary Nowak.  New York: Bloomsbury, 2016: 143-161.

At once dream-inducing and didactic, food advertisements narrated the cultural fairy tales of Economic Boom period Italian life.
In Doing Research to Improve Teaching and Learning: A Guide for College and University Faculty. Ed. Kimberly Williams.  New York: Routledge, 2015: 103-106.

Blogging matters because it promotes autonomy and community through authentic writing.


Translation of Antonio Negri, “To the Origins of Biopolitics. A Seminar” (“Alle origini del biopolitico”). In Biopower: Foucault and Beyond.  Eds. Vernon W. Cisney and Nicolae Morar. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016: 48-64.
Translation of Roberto Esposito, “The Person and Human Life”  (“Persona e vita umana”). In Theory after “Theory.”   Eds. Derek Attridge and Jane Elliott. Co-trans. Thomas Kelso. New York: Routledge, 2011: 205-219.

Reproductive Healthcare from Fascism to Forza Nuova

This article examines breastfeeding propaganda from Fascism to Forza Nuova to investigate how far-right political groups in Italy have historically approached reproductive health care.  Visual analysis of posters and films read in context with the urbanism of Roman streets and rationalist obstetric clinics clarifies the specific strategies these groups have used to discredit female health care practitioners and the broader reproductive choices that they have traditionally provided to women.  At stake in these artistic antecedents are the constellation of far-right causes and religious concerns that anchor and inform the current call for what I term the “new pronatalism,” defined here as the promotion of higher birthrates among native Italians to buttress nationalist demographic might.  Forza Nuova frames their bid for Italian women to birth more children as oppositional, “Births at historic lows/ Italy needs children/ not gay marriage and immigrants.”  By tracing the development of far-right breastfeeding propaganda over time, we can better understand authoritarian bids for control over reproductive health care today.

How to Eat an Empire: East Africa and Italian Food Industry

This article uses culinary ephemera from 1896 to 1943 to investigate how Italian food companies have historically framed North and East Africa in terms of consumable goods. Surprisingly, food companies also used colonial imagery to advertise the most emblematically Italian of foods, like pasta.  To investigate this paradox, an Italian food cast in colonial terms, this article follows the paradoxical entanglement of pasta, as well as grains more largely, including teff, polenta, and coucous, in Italian commercial narratives of empire.  At stake in these inquiry lies the shifting question of national identity as expressed through local cuisine.

Dollies for the Duce: Imperial Toys in Fascist Nurseries

This article will examine toys both in terms of the types of Italian Fascist regime-inflected play that they prompted, and also in terms of how the companies who produced these toys were enmeshed in the politics of the regime.  Moving from china dolls to collecting games, the article examines divergent treatment of white and black dolls during the Ethiopian Occupation (1935-1941).  The acts that they prompted desensitized the players of the game to human suffering, and ultimately wrote the scripts for real life violence in the colonies.

Paper Soldiers on the March: Fascist Toys for Imperial Play

Fascist toys reveal the pedagogy of imperial play.  Investigating the apparently innocent realm of toys and play reveals, in miniature how early learning of racism and violence took place during the Italian Fascist period.  To this end, this article will examine three types of toys in turn.  First, it analyses Farina Lattea Erba’s boardgame “La conquista di Abyssinia” alongside similar war toys like paper soldiers: Italian Alpini, Eritrean Ascari, and Somali Dubat.  Close analysis of racing games reveals the broader financial structures that underpinned much colonial propaganda associated with Fascist government projects.

Colonie and the Cult of Youth in Fascist Architecture.

The Fascist regime attempted the mass organization of its young citizens with the ultimate goal of enhancing the vitality of the future Italian race.  To combat childhood diseases like tuberculosis, state-affiliated medics recommended fresh air and sunlight.  To do so, Fascist medics would need to partner with architects to build youth colonies, essentially Fascist summer camps.  Called colonie, translated literally as “colonies,” these camps aimed to promote racial health and hygiene through exposure to the sun, sea, and exercise. Children of industrial workers could visit these residential seats for month-long excursions to experience outdoor living.  In this chapter, I argue that the colonie provided the Fascist party with an opportunity to pursue two intertwined political goals.  First, the design of the colonie promised to improve Italian children’s health through visibly tidy mass playtime.  Second, photographic representations of the colonie could be disseminated as propaganda.  This chapter investigates the history of these holiday hostels to shed light on Fascism’s eugenic approach to architecture and urbanism.  At a historical moment when evidence of a large, youthful population visually implied national military might, the Fascist regime looked to summer camps to serve as architectural laboratories for building better Italians. 

Fascist Monòpoli: Dictating the Money Game.

The Italian public’s enthusiasm for dictator Benito Mussolini and the Fascist party peaked in the mid-1930s, with the military occupation of Ethiopia.  Troops for the milizia volontaria invaded the sovereign nation in October 1935 to establish Italian East Africa, an area that comprises modern-day Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia.  The occupation was hugely expensive, both due to its direct cost and in losses due to League of Nations trade sanctions, to which both Italy and Ethiopia belonged.  To balance the budget, all Italians were called to participate in the regime’s colonial ventures.  Men enlisted in the armed services.  Women donated their gold wedding rings on the Giornata delle Fede (Day of Faith, also literally translated as the Day of the Wedding Rings).  Children vicariously participated in the Fascist regime’s imperial project, as they threw a pair of dice across the boards of games like La Conquista dell’Abissinia (The Conquest of Abyssinia), Alla conquista economica dell’impero (Economic Conquest of Empire), and Tombola Storica Geografica di Etiopia (Historical Geographic Bingo of Ethiopia).


Interracial Wetnursing in Italian East Africa

Interracial wetnursing, or “mercenary breastfeeding” in the regime’s parlance, was a common form of domestic labor in Italy’s East African colonies. In a historical period where the Fascist Italian press actively worked to construct racial difference, this particular form of domestic labor challenged the binary of dark and light at a cellular level.  This essay parses the imperial intimacies of feeding and eating through Italian photography of Ethiopian breastfeeding in the Fascist period in order to speak to larger issues of how race and racism are constructed and consumed.   Eroticism and anthropology constitute two planks in the platform.  But a less obvious element of these images accounts for their resonance: they are, ultimately, about how people figure in foodways.  If food remakes the body from the inside out, then an Italian infant that consumes East African milk can no longer be considered wholly Italian – local food begins to reshape the foreign body that consumed it.  Every infant meal presents a racial risk. Eating the other is step one.  But digestion doesn’t mean disappearance – it means incorporation.